H818 conference presentation questions and answers

Simon Ball, my H818 tutor, has kindly sent me all the questions and comments people made during my H818 online conference presentation last Saturday. See Working with interpreters for my account of the presentation, some slides and the transcript.

I responded briefly to some of these at the time in the 5 minute questions/answers slot at the end of my presentation.

Now, 6 days later, I’m reviewing the questions and comments to respond more fully below.

The questions and comments:

– How much additional time was needed for translation?
– I’ve worked with an interpreter myself to deliver CPD – it’s really Hard!!!
– working with interpreters is challenging as it is more than the words … non – verbal can assist too
– Are you having a practice session before the actual teaching?
– better to know even a little bit the language of the students – my experience((.
– So instructive — having the interpreter seems to have made visible just how much interpretation our learners often have to do! (When it is easy to assume ‘we teach: they learn’ 😉 )
– To what extent did cultural differences impact on the teaching sessions?
– Were the interpreters familiar with the content of the course?
– Really interesting stuff – something that I just hadn’t appreciated before
– Echo the issue with animations not addressing cultural diversity
– links to my work as work with healthcare providers globally
– A really active kind of learning – great work, Anna
– have seen similar sort of issues with a blind student with a sighted assistant who “translated” their instructions into submitted work, and a lot was lost in translation
– It makes it difficult to teach with the gaps before responding?
– Great presentation, well done. How much do you think you lost in not being able to directly communicate with the learners? When I have conducted interviews with a translator, I often felt that the translator ‘edited’ the students’ responses
– Interpreters may find difficulties when the subject contents are hard to understand
– The use of previous cohorts seems like a good idea.

My responses:

Did I have a practice session before the actual teaching?

No, I didn’t do a practice session with the interpreters before any of the sessions, nor did I practice with any of the other tutors, though the tutors had several planning meetings together in the 3 months leading up to the Residential School when we went through what would be covered and our approaches to each element of the sessions.

In hindsight, some of what we planned for the Assessment of Distance Learning sessions (which incorporated quiz question building) was quite ambitious in the time available, especially in view of the diverse range of experience which the participants had about assessment methods. However, trying pedagogical approaches with the learners, getting their feedback and reviewing our methods prompted some immediate adaption, changes for subsequent sessions and longer term plans which include some translated flipped learning materials and activities, to enable more active learning in face-to-face sessions.

How much additional time was needed for translation [in the sessions]?

I roughly estimated this took a significant proportion of time during each face-to-face teaching session: approximately a third, though not quite half of the time (depending upon the mix of presentation and activities). Although some of the participants could understand some English, it was impossible to tell how fluent they were, and if tutors spoke fast or for to long, this reduced their chances of following what was being said. So we consciously had to slow ourselves down, think carefully about how we were explaining something and then wait while the interpreter translated and spoke. Responding to questions also took time, the interpreter had to listen then ask us the question and this sometimes turned into a three way conversation if we weren’t sure of the question.

Were the interpreters familiar with the content?

No, for the interpreters, what we were teaching was new to them too and they were keen learners. They were young university students, who could speak English well, but some of the terminology we were introducing was unfamiliar to them. Their positive attitude made a huge difference to the tutors and helped the learners understand more.

How much was lost in translation?

It was difficult to tell whether the interpreters were substantially editing what we had said when they translated or whether their potential misunderstanding of a topic was being passed on to the learners. However, clarification questions helped tutors gauge that at least some of what we were explaining was being understood and translated appropriately. In the practical hands-on sessions I was teaching, it was particularly apparent when learners understood, because they succeeded in configuring something which was quite complicated and they asked meaningful questions about quiz question configuration which showed they were grasping what I was trying to explain. This was heartening (and something we celebrated); however at the same time it gave me much food for thought on finding alternative ways to convey the time-consuming complexities of quiz building more accessibly next time so that language and culture is less of a barrier.

To what extent did cultural differences make an impact on the sessions?

I became conscious that I wasn’t sure if some gestures were culturally acceptable or not (such as a thumbs up for well done/success: no one told me it wasn’t, but I stopped using it because I was unsure). There was a strong cultural element of deference to expertise; even within the groups: it was noticeable that there was a hierarchy between the academic and ICT learners within each university group when working together and respectful deference to tutor knowledge. Smiling seemed to be a universally understood non-verbal language, thankfully, and went a long way to build relationships between learners, interpreters and tutors. The status of the young interpreters in relation to the learners (who were Higher Educational academics and ICT support staff) wasn’t entirely clear to me. In a culture of deference to expert teacher, they would traditionally be considered as learners, yet as interpreters facilitating communication between tutors from another country and Higher Education staff learners (educators in their various ways), their temporary role changed their status to something more ambiguous – both influential and deferential.

I was also conscious of my complete lack of the Myanmar language (apart from the polite greeting of ‘mingalabar’ which is ‘hello’) and very basic knowledge about the country and customs, in comparison to learner knowledge of English. Personally, it highlighted the imbalance between some cultures regarding attitude towards language learning, colonialism and intercultural exchange of ideas and practices.

Tutors were encouraged to utilise activities which helped groups collaborate across roles to introduce new approaches to learning which could build upon or change the traditional classroom lecture approaches. It isn’t realistic or practical to introduce radical, sudden changes to educational culture as it won’t be sustainable, it is better to introduce pedagogies gradually in ways which model such practices as exemplars which could be tried, reviewed and adapted by learners for their contexts.

The use of previous cohorts seems like a good idea

This comment was as a result of me explaining during my answers something which I didn’t have time to mention in the 10 minute presentation – the training of some members of the 2018 cohort of learners as tutors during the Residential School, to help build sustainability into the distance learning programme. This strand of the 2 year programme was called Training of Trainers (ToT) and I believe five learners in the 2018 cohort presented various ICT strand topics during the Residential school. One of them presented during the OpenLearn Create Masterclass which I ran on the Thursday afternoon – she used English slides (with some Myanmar language words) and explained about self-registering an account, logging on and creating a course to the class in Myanmar language while we watched. It was immensely helpful that she did this near the start of the Masterclass, before I introduced the Moodle tools the ICT learners were going to try out in their draft courses. Although I couldn’t understand what she was saying, I could follow it roughly because she was using slides which were mostly in English (and depicted web pages which are familiar to me).

Ideally the Masterclass for the ICT support learners needed to be run earlier in the week, followed by a quiz question building session before the main joint session with the Academic learners on Assessment for Distance learning. The programme is continually under review regarding content, teaching approaches and cascading both content and pedagogy so that it becomes locally sustainable.

Animations not addressing cultural diversity

This is an interesting issue and I noticed that some other H818 students were encountering similar limitations when building their conference posters using multimedia tools, because the availability of free culturally diverse images, clipart or animations is not widespread online. It seems that online tools and resources often reinforce the dominance of Global North imagery as the basic standard ‘for free’ versions such as online animation characters, with greater diversity of choices only available behind a pay wall.

Additionally, animating a character exaggerates particular quirks or behaviours, sometimes this can be quite stereotypical and matches rather than challenges perceptions of how characters might behave or look, depending upon their culture or status. There is a danger that selecting and using an animated character and its actions based upon stereotypical behaviours or appearance could inadvertently cause cultural offence rather than be inclusive, though some stereotypes can also quickly and usefully convey actions which are widely understood across cultures.

For Open Educational Resources and Open Educational Practices to truly become more culturally inclusive, it is vital to create a wider diversity of resources which are freely available to use.

If you have ever taught with the assistance of an interpreter, please complete my short online survey ‘Working with interpreters (translators) for teaching and learning‘ which will inform the scenarios in good practice videos I am making.

Guarding our digital identities

It is 2018 and the age of ‘Big Brother’ is upon us.

When I was a teenager, the Matric year group of 1984 at our school studied George Orwell’s novel of the same name.  Those of us in the lower year groups were treated to references to the story all through the year via artwork, posters, writings, presentations and dramatisations of extracts in school assemblies.  Even though we didn’t study it, the disturbing message of that prophetic novel crept into our classes so we were broadly aware of the storyline and the dark message it contained.  It was the age before the internet became widespread, the school (a well off state sponsored white-only school in a lovely suburb of Cape Town) had a few Apple Mac computers for a few programming minded pupils to use.  None of us had mobile phones.  But this was Apartheid South Africa and we were all conscious that covert Government surveillance happened even if we didn’t necessarily notice it every day.  We were becoming politically aware and some of us were starting to question the injustices of the black / white / coloured divide enforced on our daily lives.  The message of that novel about propaganda manipulation and control via computer technology seemed unreal yet profoundly and frighteningly true – this could happen in the future as we knew that technology was developing faster than laws and ethics could keep up to protect people from exploitation and disaster.

So much has happened since that time as technology has advanced at ever increasing speed.  Mobile computer devices have become ubiquitous in many countries and communities, print news media is fast being superceded by online news exchanges in online news and social media sites but not everyone has the digital skills to interrogate the veracity of what they read or see online.  I’ve written before about the importance of teaching research skills to children, encouraging their natural curiosity while teaching them the principles of probing questioning of facts, interpretation of data and why I think the UK curriculum doesn’t cover this sufficiently well or early enough.

The internet age has meant that a vast amount of information is now available at the click of a button or tap of a finger on a screen, providing a huge library of knowledge, alternative facts or shop of delights.  So many new connections between people in different communities, regions and nations have become much easier to make – so much swifter than penpals communicating via pen, letter and stamp of snail mail.  We can exchange opinions and facts almost instantly with people we will never meet, sharing hobbies, games, interests, pastimes and skills as well as emotional support. So many positive and fun things have happened and continue to happen as a result of these new online technologies and tools.

My children have grown up with computers and mobile phones, though they didn’t get their own mobile phones until secondary school.  21st century schools often set homework which requires pupils to use computers. Social media apps are pervasive and addictive, especially with peer pressure in the mix making personal mobile phones potent tools for bullying and intimidation.  Every parent has the problem of weighing up how early or late to allow their children access to such tools and how to teach their children about safe responsible use of the internet, especially if they are less than sure themselves.

Our digital identities have become commercially valuable to hugely powerful companies who have immense influence about what kind of service they provide as well as the terms and conditions of using those apps and services. Governments and private companies are exploiting these tools for political purposes, using covert surveillance and manipulation of public opinion, this is especially easy to do if people are ignorant of basic good online practice or are too trusting or gullible. Even if we create online accounts on various platforms using pseudonyms to try and protect our identities depending on the context in which we use those online platforms, it is still possible for those controlling the systems we use to discover our identities hidden behind a cover name and to make use of this data and what we share for their own purposes.  Especially disturbing is how this is used in cyber warfare to divide public opinion, fan the flames of distrust and hate between groups, religions, cultures and countries.  There are reports this is done via covert setups such as bot farms which latch on to popular hashtags then twist messages to confuse people; disrupting conversations and debates sometimes with devastating results. The forthcoming EU General Data Protection Rules (GDPR) are compelling EU countries and countries who trade with them to face up to their responsibilities regarding the handling of personal data which they hold about people, this may offer more protection and clarity of our right to privacy though may be difficult to enforce.

Teaching people how to use these modern online technologies safely, responsibly and openly is never more urgent than now in the face of all this frightening online activity. It is hard for those of us in Open Education who embrace and promote the concept of open access, open sharing and open online education to counter the negativity and dangers which can so easily outweight the good aspects of the online world.  We try to practice openness which can be risky depending on the situation, we have discovered that a blended mix of open and closed practice is needed to fit the particular context.  The ideal is to be completely open, the reality is to be as open as sensibly possible and when appropriate to explain why we have chosen a particular mix, to encourage others who are tentatively contemplating the merits and potential pitfalls of open educational practice.  Designing learning activities to teach topics in a subject which make good use of the internet and social media is challenging.  Yet it also offers the opportunity to embed teaching about digital identities, open educational resources and practices.

The internet allows us to participate in a class being taught by someone in another country. We can sit on the periphery of a class as we cannot see or hear all the conversations in the physical classroom unless they are shared via a video link, however we can contribute via social media synchronously or asynchronously, possibly enriching or disrupting that lesson by our virtual presence as we share observations and artefacts via images or links to resources.  We cannot know the extent of the impact of our presence on the students whose class we have been invited to join virtually, it may be tenuous or profound, different for each individual.  The potential for learning isn’t limited to the students, those of us who join these learning activities as guest participants also learn and may be inspired to explore avenues we may never have contemplated before as our own cultural world view is challenged and expanded.  It is intellectually rewarding and fun, though can also feel vaguely intrusive (gate crashing the class), depending on how the guest involvement is mediated by the teacher.

I participated briefly in one such international class by contributing a photograph of an item from an unusual angle, as requested by the teacher, the academic Maha Bali, whose fascinating keynote at the OER17 conference in London last year got many of us reevaluating cultural and gender identities, online privacy, accessibility and context of open educational practices.  The photo activity was only one element of the Twitter Scavenger hunt for the Intercultural Learning Class she had designed for her Cairo based students, which she shared via her blog and Twitter several days in advance when she invited her Twitter connections to contribute if they could.  I liked that in her class design she acknowledged the reluctance of some students to create a social media account, students were not excluded if they didn’t create an account, they paired up with others, so mobile phone use could be a face to face group social activity.  The class activities included creating an alternative job or career for themselves as well as reading specific sources in advance or during the lesson.  They tweeted their responses or shared their favourite quote from these sources, tagging the author and a particular hashtag to engage in online discussions. Both the students and the online guests were invited to share a photo of a weird view of an item and guess what the item might be, encouraging online engagement with strangers from many cultures and several countries in a relatively controlled and friendly way.

Image I shared for #DigitalGuardiansEg

Image I shared for #DigitalGuardiansEg – guesses included “a game of some sort?” (@Ayah_Egypt) and “Art piece of some kind? Wall art?” (@el_venter)

One of the resources I was able to read before heading off to work (I shared my photo just before commuting) was the poem I’m Not Angry at You by Maha Bali which explores the topics of cultural divide, colonial attitudes, power, the imposition of language and culture, as well as misguided assumptions about how others think and feel. My favourite quote from the poem, which I didn’t share on twitter at the time of the class, was:

“I’ll tell you what makes me angry
I’m angry when I tell you my story
In your OWN DAMN LANGUAGE
And you change it
Because you think you know it better
You don’t
Because you think you can express it better
You can’t
That’s YOU colonizing ME ”

I found myself telling my daughter about the class activity and the poem as I drove her to school.  Later I recalled my favourite Open University course A216 (Art and its histories) which devoted a whole unit of the course to cultural otherness including colonial attitudes to African art and culture. That course had reawoken my dormant interest in the art, designs and scenes of my childhood very vividly (Cape Town Market Square filled with colour, music and fabric stalls, bushman paintings in Lesotho, white washed Cape Dutch art galleries and natural history displays) and how these had been reinterpreted and rewritten by Western views.  My perspective is filtered through the lens of a white South Africa born and raised British person who has lived in the northern hemisphere all her adult life, yet with a deep appreciation for Africa, its histories, art and peoples.

I have shared some of my own creations and historical researches in public online, either via a semi anonymous blog with a pseudonym about a particular hobby or more openly via social media: Twitter, this blog and Facebook with my real name.  I’ve been conscious of limitations and risks regarding digital identity and privacy as well as the inherent need in this modern online age of educating people to engage in responsible and respectful ways in online spaces.  Thank you Maha Bali for inviting the world to engage in your online class activity which explored this topic and for making it accessible to many of us who do not speak your language.  As one guest participant commented “I thought I was playing a guessing game this morning, but instead my very worldview has been shaken! #DigitalGuardiansEg” (@jmgordon, via Twitter, 8 February 2018) [edit: though I believe this was said as a joke, @jmgordon has said she “truly appreciated being reminded that things are not necessarily how they seem to me”].

And in case you were wondering what the image I shared is all about, it touches on some of the topics I have covered in this blog post.  It depicts a joint creation built by my husband and me over a period of several years in our spare time, inspired by our love of music, art and places special to us.  You can read more about it on my husband’s pipe organ website if you are interested.

32 keyless street organ with hand carved and painted facade

32 keyless street organ with hand carved and painted facade, mounted on a Silver cross pram chassis

The contents of this blog post has been created and shared using a Creative Commons ShareAlike Non-commercial licence which means others can remix, tweak and build upon this work non-commercially as long as they credit me and licence their new creations under the identical terms.  If you reuse any part of this blog post including photos or text please use the following attribution to credit me:  CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 by Anna C Page https://annacpage.wordpress.com/2018/02/09/guarding-our-digital-identities/
For more information about Creative Commons licences see https://creativecommons.org/

MK Trefoil Guild outing to London – ICANDO

Thursday 20th May I had a day off work and travelled with 7 friends from Milton Keynes Trefoil Guild to London. We visited the Girlguiding Association HQ in Buckingham Palace Road, where they have the ICANDO activities, and the centenary of Girlguiding exhibition. Two other Guilds had signed up for the Reflections day – Reading and Surbiton.

We were welcomed with a cup of tea or coffee, a short introduction talk, then were let loose to find our way around the centenary exhibition and the ICANDO activities upstairs.  One of the first things some of us did was to write a Guiding memory on a postcard and tie it to a noticeboard.  Apparently they plan to enter all the memories into a database.  I wrote of my Brownie and Guiding experiences in South Africa (camping was the best fun).  The exhibition featured artefacts from the archives including log books, badges, a toy from the Guiding extension unit (disabled guides making handicrafts to sell) and a brick!  The most poignant log book was of a Brownie Unit in a Chinese concentration camp during WW2.  The brick was from an anonymous young Guide who wanted to contribute to the building of the Girlguiding HQ in London.

We had our packed lunches then a quick look around the Guide shop before going upstairs to the council room where the archivist was waiting for us.  She gave us a fascinating talk about the archives, illustrated with artefacts she had brought out for us to see.  We were allowed to handle them.  There was a Guide uniform of 1910 with the original wide brimmed hat, the little handbooks given to the earliest Guides about how to conduct themselves and all about the Guide movement, and more log books, the most amazing of which was that of the 1st Chorlton cum Hardy Guides in Cumbria who had close links with a certain Mrs Heelis – Beatrix Potter.  The log book included an illustrated card she had sent them, as well as an illustration of Peter Rabbit with the Guides.  Truly priceless.  I took photos of these to show my daughters, but will not publish them online because of Copyright.

We tore ourselves away from the archives to be rewarded with cream tea and each Guild signed the special 2010 visitor album by creating a page to go in it.  I drew a very wonky looking ‘cow’ on our page (referencing the Milton Keynes Concrete Cows).  We had one more trip to the shop (where inevitably we bought things!), then caught taxis to take us back to Euston station.

Our outing wasn’t quite over though, as when we got back to Milton Keynes we went to Mary’s house for a cup of tea before having a meal out together.  For me it was a pleasure to have a relaxing day with friends who love Guiding, a good little interlude in my usual headlong and busy life.

GirlGuiding celebrates 100 years

http://www.girlguiding100years.org.uk/centenary_launch.aspx

COME TO THE PARTY GUIDES!

Today was a BIG day for Girlguiding. We celebrated 100 years of the movement with lots of parties in the UK where Guiding started as each county had its own celebration.  Soon there will be more all over the world in the countries where the movement was adopted soon after it was founded.

My girls are both in the movement, and nearly 3 years ago I joined the Trefoil Guild – which is the movement for old Guides or Guiders (I was a South African Guide).  A few Guides from my elder daughter’s company were attending the Bucks Party, but my little one’s Rainbows weren’t going, so I arranged to take her instead, partly because I wanted to join in the fun too!  There were 46 of us from the Wolverton District who joined the rest of Ouse Valley crowd as part of the huge crowd from all across the County at the Buckinghamshire party, which was held at Cottesloe School in Wing.  Most people who attended travelled there and back in coaches – 40 altogether (about 2,500 people).

The day had started clear and sunny, but by the time we arrived in the early afternoon it had clouded over, and at times was quite cool (fortunately it didn’t rain).  Each Division had an area at the rim of the field, and activites were placed in between the Divisional areas around the central Arena (where there were displays of the Chesham All Girls Band, Falconry, and Sheepdogs herding geese!).  In fact the variety of activities laid on for the girls to enjoy was quite staggering, my girls tried out Circus skills, giant slide, bouncy assault course, Climbing wall, Steel band, bouncy castle and a magic show, and there was loads more (they watched but didn’t do the Archery and the Steam Traction engine rides, there were also several other things they didn’t have time to try).  After the picnic the whole arena was covered with parachute games, this was followed by a disco in the big tent.  We then returned to our coaches for the 30 minute journey home, very tired but happy after an active and fun filled day in which both girls got to try out new skills and burn off some energy.

Steel drumming

Steel drumming

Climbing wall

Climbing wall

One of the nicest things about the day was the chance to meet up with Guiding friends, including the lovely surprise of spending time with my elder daughter’s former Brown Owl, who now lives overseas but had returned to celebrate with friends and family involved in Guiding.

Magic Show

Magic Show

Parachute games

Parachute games

Here are some links to some references to 100 years of Girlguiding:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/8232480.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/8238956.stm

http://www.girlguiding100years.org.uk/

http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2009/aug/21/brownies-girl-guides

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/6027583/100-years-of-the-Girl-Guides-interview.html

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/glad-to-have-been-a-girl-guide-1776169.html

http://girlguidesandgirlscouts.blogspot.com/

St George’s Day and OU 40th birthday

Today has been a special day on two counts. Firstly, because it is the day that the Open University celebrates its 40th birthday, as 23rd April 1969 was the day the Charter was granted to the OU by the Queen, allowing it to come into being. I was on leave today because we are doing some home decorating, however I had good reason to go to the OU at lunchtime because it was the first proper OU choir rehearsal for the 40th anniversary concert (28th June) and we’ve got a lot to learn (Willcocks ‘In the beginning’ and Beethoven’s Choral). But I didn’t go into the office, only the old church, which looked glorious in the spring sunshine.  The electronic signs at the entrances to the OU were both displaying a ‘Happy Birthday’ message (see John Naughton’s blog).

The second reason for today being special is that it is of course St George’s Day, and what better way to celebrate than watching some Morris Dancing outside a Pub. One of my colleagues has recently joined a female group of Morris dancers, and this was her debut performance, so a group of us from work went along to support her. I took my elder daughter, but didn’t tell her why we were going to Stoke Bruerne, only that we were going. The Old Mother Redcaps took their turn amongst the other sides who were dancing, and did some really good dances (Chetz had no reason to feel nervous as she didn’t make any mistakes).

Eleanor really enjoyed watching the dancing , the bright costumes (some of them slightly eccentric, and therefore all the more interesting), the musicians and the enthusiasm of the crowds of spectators. She was intrigued to learn that her Godfather used to be a Morris Dancer.  It was a great way to introduce her to a good English tradition (she took some photos, and video which unfortunately came out too dark).  However for video of the event, and other photos, see the following links:

Video

Photos

Rose and Castle Morris Dancers - St George's Day 2009

Rose and Castle Morris Dancers - St George's Day 2009

Rose and Castle Drum

Rose and Castle Drum

Old Mother Redcaps - shoe

Old Mother Redcaps - shoe

Old Mother Redcaps dancing on St George's Day

Old Mother Redcaps dancing on St George's Day

Old Mother Redcaps dancing

Old Mother Redcaps dancing

Old Mother Redcaps

Old Mother Redcaps

Woad Works dancing - with child drummer

Woad Works dancing - with child drummer

Woad Works at Stoke Bruerne dancing for St George's day

Woad Works at Stoke Bruerne dancing for St George's day